Interactive illustration of the experimental procedure

Use the following interactive to explore how the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and acetylcholine (added via direct application, or by stimulation of sympathetic/parasympathetic nerves) influence the contractile properties of ileum smooth muscle cells.

Please note that although not explicitly shown, the smooth muscle cell is electrically coupled to a neighbouring pacemaker cell (Interstitial cell of Cajal). This interaction leads to spontaneous contractions at a set rate.

Interactive and videos developed by Dr. Scott Clarke.